In English Language, we may narrate words in one of the following two ways:
Direct Speech: Laila says, “I am going to the market.”
Indirect Speech: Laila says that she is going to the market.
In the above Direct Speech example, the sentence has two parts: Reporting Speech outside the quotation marks and the Reported Speech inside the quotation marks.
The Reported speech is written within inverted commas, quotes, speech marks or quotation marks.
In British English, single quotes (‘) are preferred whereas, in American English, double quotes (“) are preferred.
He said to her, “I would go to the bank today.” (British English)
He said to her, ‘I would go to the bank today.’ (British English)
Direct Speech contains the actual words the speaker has either spoken in the present or spoke in the past and these words are written in quotation marks without any change in them.
He says, “I have bought a new condo.”
Indirect Speech contains words that may be different from the original words that were spoken by the speaker. The reason for changes in words is that the words are spoken by a different narrator now and not by the actual speaker, so, the changes are certain.
When the original sentence takes Indirect form, quotes are removed and ‘that’ is used between the Reporting and the Reported speeches in it.
He says that he has bought a new condo.
When converting from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech, two types of changes may generally occur is the original sentence.