Adjective in English Grammar and Linguistics

V. Parts of Speech Explained in English Grammar and Linguistics
by Shahid Saleem Butt

C. Adjective in English Grammar and Linguistics

Adjective in English Grammar and Linguistics

An adjective describes, modifies or specifies a noun or a pronoun.
Adjectives vary by Comparison from Each other
Adjectives may be positive (basic quality or characteristic of something), comparative (higher degree of quality or characteristic of something) or superlative (highest quality or characteristic of something).
Examples:
  • Positive, Comparative, Superlative

  • Good, Better, Best

  • Bad, Worse, Worst

  • Beautiful, More beautiful, Most beautiful

  • Wise, Wiser, Wisest

  • Near, Nearer, Nearest

  • Small, Smaller, Smallest

There are two main types of adjectives.

1. Descriptive Adjectives

As the very name indicates, the descriptive adjectives describe the given nouns and their respective pronouns.
He is a nice fellow
This is a silly dog.
They are professional designers.

A. Qualitative or Attributive Adjectives

These adjectives modify a noun to attribute some type of quality to it.
Example:
This Scent gives sweet smell.
The concert made him sleepy.
She is a beautiful girl.
More adjectives of quality: Red, Tall, small, Bad

B. Predicate Adjectives

The predicate adjectives are a part of the predicate. They modify subject and come after linking verb.
Examples:
The candies are sweet.
He is highly excited.
Victor felt sleepy.

2. Limiting Adjectives

There are twelve (12) limiting adjectives that tend to limit the noun whom you are going to describe.

A. Nouns as Adjectives – Noun Modifiers or Adjectival Nouns

Nouns can be used to define or modify other nouns.
Examples:
He has bought a new sports car.
Arms race is going on but futuristic people like to attend computer exhibition.
She is a psychology teacher.

B. Ordinal Adjectives

Ordinal adjectives point out towards the position of noun within the given series.
Examples:
This the second month of the year.
I have secured first position in class.

C. Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives show ownership of something by using the pronouns my, our, your, her, his, their, and its.
Examples:
I love my mother.
Can I please have your pen?
They have finally reached their destination.

D. Indefinite Adjectives

Indefinite adjectives alter nouns, pronouns, and noun phrases. They include some, each, any, several, many, few, most and much.
Examples:
Some students are leaving for homes now.
Several students are ready to take part in debates.
There are only a few persons left in the meeting.

E. Definite and Indefinite Articles

Definite article (the) and Indefinite Articles (a, an) can be used before nouns to specify a specific noun.
Examples:
This is the dog that I found in the market.
This is an apple.
That is a ball.

F. Demonstrative Adjectives

Demonstrative adjectives include this, that, these, those and what.
Demonstrative adjective is used to alter noun or noun-phrase.
Examples:
This girl is really gorgeous.
My new teacher loves this writer.
These individuals are moving away from here.

G. Proper Adjectives

These are the adjectives that we derive from nouns and their first letter is written in capital form.
Examples:
Shakespearean sonnets
British Pound.
Italian Pizza.
Spanish opera.

H. Interrogative Adjectives

Interrogative adjective uses the words “what”, “which” or “whose” for the purpose of altering noun phrase or noun.
Examples:
What time will he be going to the market?
Which book are you purchasing from amazon?
Whose cat are you holding in your arms right now?

I. Cardinal Adjectives

Cardinal adjectives modify a noun by giving it a number.
Examples:
Three boys
Seven planets.

J. Quantitative Adjectives

Quantitative adjectives give more information about the quantity of a thing.
Examples:
He has devised five techniques to resolve this issue.
I am going to buy three notebooks for use at school.
This is my first attempt.
I will go at half past ten.
[Note: The Cardinal adjectives (five, six, seven, etc) are different from ordinal adjectives (fifth, sixth, seventh, etc) and multiplicative adjectives (single, double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, sextuple, septuple, octuple, and nonuple, n-tuple, etc).]

K. Coordinate Adjectives

Coordinate adjectives tend to make alterations to the same given noun. Commas or ‘and’ is used to separate them.
Examples:
Jannah was a brave and intelligent statesman.
Churchill loved to believe in the power, ingenuity and nationalism of his people.
Gandhi’s murder was cold-blooded and brutal.

L. Sequence Adjectives

Sequence adjectives act like quantitative adjectives. Here number gets a sequence or order by using ordinals or other sequencing words.
Examples:
This is your fifth biscuit.
He is going to London for the fourth time.
I’ll join you in the next concert.
This is the last episode of the play.

Giving Sequence or Order to Adjectives in a Sentence

When you write a sentence with more than one adjective in it, use them in the following sequence for the purpose.
1) Determiner: a, an, the, this, those, several, some, our, three,
2) Opinion (Observation/Temperature): Hot, amazing, Pretty, boring, cool, nice, beautiful, gorgeous, delicious,
3) Size (Physical Description): Small, Tall, Deep, huge,
4) Physical Quality: Clean, Dusty, irregular,
5) Shape (Physical Description): Short, Narrow, long, fat, Square,
6) Condition: Rich, Chaotic, wet,
7) Age (Physical Description): Old, Modern, antique, second-hand,
8) Color (Physical Description): Yellow, White, Colorful, greenish,
9) Pattern: Flowery, Striped, checked,
10) Origin: Roman, Greek, British, Arabic, German,
11) Type: Wedge-shaped, five-sided,
12) Material: Plastic, glass, synthetic, velvet, wooden,
13) Purpose (Qualifier): Writing, Haunting, Touring, Swimming, tennis, swimming, shopping, sports,
..

Main Types of Adjectives with Examples

Here are the main types of Adjectives.
Shape: square, round, triangle
Size: big, small, enormous
color: red, blue, black
Age: old, childhood, young
Temperature: hot, cool, temperate
Opinion: pretty, calm, ugly
Value: costly, loyalty, honesty
Adjective of quality: Red, Tall, small, Bad
Present Participle Adjective: running, going, falling
Past Participle Adjective: Painted, Felled, cooked
Demonstrative Adjective: This, these, that, those
Interrogative Adjective: Whose, which, what, etc.
Indefinite Adjective: Several, many, none, etc.
Possessive Adjective: My, her, its
Also visit the following:
Twelve (12) Tenses in English Language 
I. Parts of Speech in English Grammar and Linguistics
1. Noun in English Grammar and Linguistics
2. Pronoun in English Grammar and Linguistics
3. Adjective in English Grammar and Linguistics
4. Verb in English Grammar and Linguistics
5. Adverb in English Grammar and Linguistics
6. Determiner in English Grammar and Linguistics
7. Interjection in English Grammar and Linguistics
8. Conjunction in English Grammar and Linguistics
9. Preposition in English Grammar and Linguistics

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